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It measures the existing relationship between two variables. Its value is between –1 and 1. If it is negative, the relationship between the variables is inverse, that is to say, as the values ​​of one increase, those of the other decrease. If it is positive, the association is direct, that is to say, the values ​​of one variable increase with the other. A value of zero indicates no relationship. When variables are continuous and have a linear relationship, Pearson's linear correlation coefficient is an appropriate measure of association. When the variables are not continuous, other correlation coefficients are used


A rate is the proportion that represents the number of events of any kind: births, deaths, marriages, accidents, purchases... in the population in which they occur. This ratio is as much as one. The best-known way to express a rate is in the form of a percentage that expresses the phenomenon per hundred people. It is also common to see it expressed as so much for a thousand, for every thousand people, or so much for a hundred thousand people, for every hundred thousand people.

Crude rate

A crude rate is the proportion that represents the number of events in the population in which they occur. This population has not been treated to make it comparable with other populations, which does not allow the comparison of this rate with other rates.

Growth rate

The growth rate measures in percentage how much a phenomenon is increasing or decreasing during a given period.


The quantiles are the number of cuts between which we divide a set of cases, to make groups with a number of similar cases. The most commonly used quantiles are quartiles (4 cut-offs), quintiles (5 cut-offs), deciles (10 cut-offs) and percentiles (100 cut-offs).


The quartiles are those values ​​of the variable that divide it into quarters, ordering the values ​​from smallest to largest. This division distributes the number of values ​​of the variable into four similarly distributed The first quartile is the 25% of the smallest values. The second quartile has 25.01% to 50% of the smallest cases. The third quartile has 50.01% to 75% of the smallest cases. The fourth quartile brings together the last group of values, which represents the highest values ​​in the sample.

Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a collection of 17 interrelated global goals designed to be a "shared model for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and in the future." The SDGs were established in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly (UN-GA) and are intended to be achieved by 2030. They are included in what is known as the 2030 Agenda. The SDGs emphasize environmental aspects , social and economic interconnected aspects of sustainable development, putting sustainability at the center.


Frequency with which a phenomenon appears, happens or repeats itself


ICD-10 is the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases. This classification determines and codifies diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of damage and/or disease.

Distribution of cases

The distribution of cases shows how a success, characteristic, disease, illness, exposure... is distributed in the population according to different strata or characteristics.

Standardized rate

Adjusted rates are products of a hypothetical calculation that does not represent the observed values ​​of the rates and serve only for comparison between groups, not to measure an absolute magnitude However, the value of the rates should be considered standardized as the comparison value between populations and territories.

Premature death

Premature death is death that occurs before the average age of a given population or a reference age.


Increase in the percentage of people over 60 or 65 in a population.

Low birth weight

Low birth weight is considered when the weight of a baby is equal to or less than 2,499 g, regardless of gestational age.


It refers to the presentation of a disease, symptom of a disease or the proportion of a disease in a population. Morbidity also refers to the medical problems produced by a treatment.

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